It may seem odd that such a small passage can create such a large part of human imagination. Something similar could be said for Gabriel (Luke 1:26-38). As for Raphael, see Tobit 3:17ff.
War broke out in heaven;
Michael and his angels battled against the dragon.
The dragon and its angels fought back,
but they did not prevail
and there was no longer any place for them in heaven.
The huge dragon, the ancient serpent,
who is called the Devil and Satan,
who deceived the whole world,
was thrown down to earth,
and its angels were thrown down with it.
-- Revelation 12:7-9